Kraftig utviklingsforstyrrelse – lærte likevel å lese og skrive

Etter en hjerteoperasjon som baby fikk hun nyre- og leversvikt. I tillegg var resultatet en alvorlig hjerneskade. Legene mente det ikke var noe å gjøre, så de ga opp. Men familien fortsatte å kjempe.
Da Anne-Sofie ble tenåring var hun fortsatt på nivå som en på tre til åtte år. Hjelpeapparatet ante ikke hva de skulle gjøre.
Ved hjelp av Tomatis-metoden lærte den glade jenta både å lese og skrive. Etter noen timer med lyttetrening utviklet hun konsentrasjonsevne og hukommelsen ble bedre.
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Først etter at Anne-Sofie begynte med lytte-trening, klarte hun å forholde seg til spill og andre aktiviteter.

 

– På sykehuset sa de at barnet skulle snus fire ganger i døgnet resten av livet. Hun var hjelpeløs, som halvannet år gammel viste hun seg å kunne mindre enn en nyfødt, forteller Lillian Almstad, som er jentas mor.
Hjelpeapparatet forberedte henne på at datteren ikke ville kunne fungere noensinne. Og det var ingen hjelp å få fra det offentlige, så Jan og Lillian Almstad  måtte lete etter relevant behandling sjøl. Det ble en kamp tilbake til livet.  Datteren hadde også mistet synet, men ved hjelp av akupunktur fikk hun det tilbake.
– Da Anne-Sofie var tolv, leste jeg om Tomatis-metoden. Vi fikk raskt satt opp en avtale i Trondheim og bare etter få timer med lyttetrening så vi allerede en bedring. Jenta vår husket bedre og klarte å legge puslespill på tohundre brikker, stråler den stolte mora og legger til at toalettbesøkene også begynte å bli avlagt i tide. Før skjedde det ofte uhell.
– Tomatis-metoden hjalp Anne-Sofie å lære å lese og skrive – og hun prater veldig bra nå, bedyrer moren og holder tommelen opp for Tomatis.
– Hjertebarnet mitt er blitt tjueen nå. Det er som om Tomatis-metoden ordner opp i kroppen på naturlig vis.

Fakta om Tomatis- metoden

Når vi snakker om at en person er oppmerksom eller konsentrert mener vi vanligvis at denne er  opptatt av en utvalgt del av eller et aspekt ved de påvirkninger og informasjoner som denne mottar fra enten omgivelsene eller fra egen kropp. Dette skjer samtidig som han/hun i nødvendig omfang undertrykker eller siler bort uvedkommende og forstyrrende signaler.
Vår tid oppleves av mange som uoversiktlig og frustrerende med sine raske forandringer og sitt høye tempo noe  som mere enn noensinne krever at vi velger hva vi skal ha vår oppmerksomhet rettet mot. Mange så vel voksne som barn/ungdom vet ikke hva de skal gjøre med sitt liv, og føler seg samtidig nærmest druknet i informasjon og detaljer, uten mulighet til å sortere.  Har man i tillegg en type av forstyrrelse/svekkelse av oppmerksomhetsfunksjonen blir ikke problemene noe lettere i en tid hvor det finnes så lite rutinepregede aktiviteter, og hvor man hele tiden skal innstille seg på noe nytt.
Den menneskelige hjerne er det mest kompliserte organ vi kjenner til. Den inneholder mer enn 20 milliarder nerveceller, som gjennom et stort antall nervefibrer står i forbindelse med hverandre. Hver enkelt nervecelle kan ha kontakt med opptil 300.000 andre nerveceller, hvorfor omfanget og antallet kommunikasjonsveier i nervesystemet er enormt. Det er signaler gjennom disse kommunikasjonsveier som gjør det mulig for oss å bevege oss, kjenne, tale, høre, se og oppleve verden i og rundt oss.
For mer enn 40 år siden gjorde den franske øre, nese, hals-legen Alfred Tomatis noen overraskende oppdagelser som førte til utviklingen av Tomatis metode. Denne metoden blir benevnt med ulike navn, alt fra lyttetrening, lyttestimulering til lytteterapi. Dens hensikt er å trene opp lytteevnen, forbedre lære- og språkmulighetene, kommunikasjon, kreativitet og sosial adferd.
Tomatis metode har hjulpet tusenvis av barn og voksne med problemer som dreier seg om lytteevne og oppfattelse (auditiv prosessering), dysleksi, lærevansker, ADD, ADHD, DAMP, autisme og PDD, nevrologisk eller genetisk betingede utviklingsforsinkelser som for eksempel cerebral parese, Down syndrom samt de med motorikk og koordineringsproblemer, øresus, nedsatt hørsel, enkelte nevrologiske lidelser. Metoden har hjulpet ikke minst voksne til å bekjempe depresjoner, tilvenningsvansker til nye situasjoner, lære fremmed språk hurtigere, utviklet bedre kommunikasjonsferdigheter, forbedret kreativiteten og andre ferdigheter.  Mange musikere, sangere, og skuespillere har blitt i stand til å finjustere sine ferdigheter ved hjelp av Tomatis metode. Sist men ikke minst har mange klienter merket psykiske forandringer, herunder større selvtillit, mer energi og motivasjon, bedre tenkeevne og en følelse av velvære.
Lyttingen blir forbedret ved å trene øret og dermed stimulere nervesystemet. Fordi lytting er en hjørnestein i utviklingen av mange andre ferdigheter, innebærer det  å forbedre lytteevnen at en oppnår forbedret læreevne, språk og kommunikasjonsferdigheter. En bør huske at uansett om det gjelder oppmerksomhet, motivasjon, selvbeherskelse, lesing, skriving, snakking eller bare det å utvikle vennskap, så er alt dette avhengig av god lytteevne.
Metoden blir i dag benyttet ved mer enn 100 sentre i hele verden. Disse blir i dag ledet av sertifiserte spesialister med bakgrunn innen kommunikasjon, medisin, psykologi eller pedagogikk etc.
Dr. Tomatis har gjennom årenes løp utviklet kompliserte teorier rundt ørets ulike funksjoner og dets tilknytning til stemmen. Vi vil i det etterfølgende kun presentere noen av de grunnleggende ideer, som alt er basert på lytteprosessens nevro-fysiologi, nemlig :
1.                 Øret som apparat for å høre (sneglehuset)
2.                 Øret som sentral for balanse og kroppstilling (det vestibulære system)
3.                 Øret som apparat for å generere energi til hjernen
4.                 Det ledende øret
5.                 Sammenhengen mellom øret og stemmen
1.    Øret som apparat for å høre
Når vi snakker om øret tenker vi som oftest på verbet å høre. Lytting, ikke høring, er imidlertid primærfunksjonen til øret. Det er sneglehuset i det indre ørets oppgave å analysere lyder, noe som er spesielt viktig for språkforståelse og oppfattelse.
I følge Dr. Tomatis er å høre en passiv prosess, mens lytting er en aktiv prosess, som krever at man ønsker å bruke ørets kapasitet fullt ut. Vi kan nemlig ha en utmerket hørsel, men likevel være dårlige lyttere.
Mange barn med lærevansker, ADD, DAMP, ADHD o.a. kan ha en utmerket hørsel, men kan fortsatt ikke lese ordentlig eller konsentrere seg. Deres problem er et lytteproblem, og som et resultat kan de ikke konsentrere seg og har et problem med lesing.
Hvis du ønsker å vite om du selv eller ditt barn har lytteproblemer, se Paul Madaule’s spørreskjema, velg ”TEST DEG SELV” på vår meny.
Å lytte handler både om evnen til å ta inn informasjon som å være i stand til å filtrere ut irrelevant informasjon. Når våre sanser er riktig innstilt og prosessen i hjernen går riktig for seg så vil irrelevante stimuli bli utstengt, og vi blir i stand til å fokusere og konsentrere oss om det som er vesentlig fra våre omgivelser eller fra oss selv uten å føle oss bombardert av mengden av informasjon. Vi kan sortere og organisere denne informasjonen i meningsfulle sammenhenger slik at vi skiller mellom f.eks. adferd, intensjoner, mål, meninger og verdier samt rammer o.a. På den annen side når denne prosessen blir forstyrret oppstår lytteproblemer, som igjen medfører problemer så vel i kommunikasjon som i sosiale ferdigheter, adferd og ikke minst teoretisk/akademiske problemer.
Lyttetrening slik den er utviklet av Dr. Tomatis hjelper til å utvikle eller trene opp ørets evne til å lytte på en effektiv, organisert og balansert måte. Målet er å bli i stand til å utnytte hjernens kapasitet til å lære, mer enn det å lære spesielle fag/ferdigheter.
Når lyttefunksjonen er opptrenet viser hjernen en mer effektiv læreevne når den utsettes for omgivelsenes stimulering.

2.    Øret som sentral for balanse og kroppsstilling
I følge Dr. Tomatis kontrollerer vestibylen, som er en del av det indre øret, balanse, koordinasjon, kroppens orientering i forhold til omverden, muskeltonus etc.
Vestibulær og sneglehuset danner til sammen en koblingsstasjon mellom nervesystemet og hjernen hva gjelder all informasjon fra sansene det være seg berøring, smak, lukt, syns- og hørselsinntrykk som alle blir tolket og videreformidlet denne vei. Barn som har vestibulær-/sneglehusproblemer har ofte ulike problemer med å behandle og integrere sansesignaler.
Det er viktig å nevne noen andre forhold rundt øret som henspiller på de samme forhold. Vi har to svært sentrale muskler i det indre øret: stigbøylens muskel (m. stapedius) og hammerens muskel (m. tensor tympani), den siste strammer trommehinnen. Tomatis fant i sin tid ut at stigbøylens muskel var særlig sentral i det denne kontrollerer bl.a. hammeren, ambolten og stigbøylen samt de tre små bena i mellomøret, for at vi skal kunne høre de mer høyfrekvente lydene i tale og i musikk. Han fant dessuten at muskelen hadde med vår holdning å gjøre. Dersom stigbøylens muskel var slapp, hadde også personen tilsvarende slapp holdning. Når Tomatis trening ved hjelp av det elektroniske øret ble gjennomført, og tilsvarende strammet opp stigbøylens muskel, rettet holdningen seg automatisk opp. Denne muskelen, konkluderte Dr. Tomatis med stod i et intimt samspill med sneglehuset i det indre øret.
3.    Øret som apparat for å generere energi til hjernen
En annen viktig funksjon ved øret og dens forbindelse til hjernen er at høyfrekvente lyder gir energi til hjernen, mens det motsatte skjer ved bruk av lavfrekvente lyder.
De lavfrekvente lydene får vårt legeme til å føle behov for å bevege seg, som en kompensasjon for denne uttapping, og i forsøk på å tilføre energi til hjernen. Dette skjer ved at kroppen aktiverer de semisirkulære kanaler i vestibulærsystemet. Dersom disse lavfrekvente lydene vedvarer vil vårt legeme fortsette å bevege seg til man er utslitt. Denne effekten er ofte sett hos mennesker som lytter til Rock- og Rap-musikk. Nå må det umiddelbart tilføyes at det er ikke slik at lavfrekvente lyder er bare dårlig for kroppen og vis a versa. Erfaringsmessig kan f.eks. musikk og lydimpulser med lave frekvenser være gunstig der mennesker er altfor lite i kontakt med kroppen sin, f.eks slik situasjonen er i visse ungdomsmiljøer i urbane strøk, hvor kroppsarbeid er lite utbredt til inntekt for mental overstimulering. På en annen side vil et stykke av Mozart med sin overtonerikdom, generere en helt annen adferd.
Dr. Tomatis merket seg at når vår hjerne er godt oppladet kan vi konsentrere oss, organisere minnet, fokusere oppmerksomhet, lære, arbeide i lengre perioder uten anstrengelse.
De fleste barn eller voksne med interesse for klassisk musikk får mer enn nok energi tilført gjennom denne ørets funksjon og opplever sjelden å føle seg tappet for energi eller deprimert. På den annen side hos hyperaktive barn finner man ofte at disse befinner seg i konstant bevegelse i forsøk på å lade opp hjernen gjennom vestibulær aktivitet. Mennesker hvis hjerne stadig ikke lades skikkelig opp, har eller opplever store problemer særlig når disse konfronteres med de mange utfordringer som samfunnet av i dag byr på med sitt høye tempo.
4.    Det ledende øret
Overraskende nok for mange skal og bør vi ha et dominerende øre; noen er høyre øre dominant, andre er venstre øre dominant, atter andre har ikke dominans på noe øre. Fordelen til de som er høyre øre dominant er den at det høyre øre behandler innkommende lyttesignaler raskere enn det venstre øret (auditiv prosessering). Derfor vil et menneske som er høyre øre dominant kontrollere tale og stemme, herunder intensitet, frekvens, tonalitet, rytme og flyt mye bedre enn de som har motsatt eller ingen dominans.
Tomatis’ program lærer klienten å bruke det høyre øret mer effektivt. Når de lærer dette så vil de selv oppleve å få bedre kontroll over sin stemme og således bli i stand til å kommunisere bedre. Dette vil styrke deres selvbeherskelse og selvtillit. Mange forskere som har studert resultatet av Tomatis metode på stammere har oppdaget at høyre øre dominante klienter viste en utmerket evne til å reagere spontant og nøyaktig, på følelsesmessige stimuli.
Den høyre øre dominante viste seg å være mer utadvendt, mer oppmerksom og hadde kontroll over sine følelsesmessige reaksjoner, var mindre henfallen til redsel, spenninger, frustrasjon og aggresjon, alt i tråd med Tomatis’ utsagn hva gjelder lateralitet.
5.    Sammenhengen mellom øret og stemmen
I 1953 presenterte Dr. Alfred Tomatis en lov for det franske vitenskapsakademi som sa at ”stemmen kan bare uttrykke det øret kan høre”.  Denne observasjonen forekom usannsynlig. Men Dr. Tomatis var i stand til å påvise at øret og stemmen var en del av det samme nevrologiske kretsløp, slik at endringer i det enes respons automatisk vil påvirke det andres funksjon. Denne observasjonen gjør vi ofte når sangere har et stemmeproblem. I mange tilfeller kommer stemmeproblemet fra et minimalt lytteproblem; hvor øret ikke er i stand til å sjekk ut nøyaktig tonen når denne skal produseres. Sangeren tvinges til å ”presse” stemmen i forsøk på å overvinne problemet. Når lytteproblemet er løst gjenvinner mange sangere sitt fulle potensiale.
Barn med kjedelig og forflatet stemme har ofte læreproblemer og lider under fenomenet dårlig lytting. En slik stemme indikerer f.eks. dårlig evne til å analysere overtoner. Dessuten kan problemer med øredominans være tilstede (lateralitet). Ved å forbedre lytteevnen og etablere høyre øre dominans vil stemmen gradvis forandres til å inneholde et rikt utvalg av overtoner, større grad av presisjon, harmoni, rytme og gi raskere respons.
6.    Når lytteevnen våkner
Tidlig hevdet Tomatis at fosteret hører og lytter til sin mors stemme. Vitenskapelig forskning har bekreftet dette. I dag er det allment akseptert at øret er det første organ som er fullt funksjonelt, dette skjer vanligvis allerede når fosteret er 4,5 mnd. Gammelt. Basert på en rekke studier av vitenskapelig litteratur og egne erfaringer konkluderte Tomatis med at mors stemme ikke bare er en emosjonell læring for barnet, men også forbereder barnet slik at dette virkelig ønsker å lære språk etter fødselen (ønske om kommunikasjon). D.v.s. lytting starter allerede i mors liv.
Av denne grunn har Dr. Tomatis fremmet bruken av mors røst for å ”gjenåpne” lytteprosessen. Stemmen blir da filtrert slik at denne i størst mulig grad minner om lyden slik den hørtes ut for fosteret i mors liv.
Ut fra reaksjonene hos både barn og voksne, er det helt klart at bruken av mors røst har stor virkning: barn roer seg ned som om stemmen behager dem; de virker mer tilfreds og følsom i positiv forstand, spesielt i forhold til sin mor.
Adoptivbarn knytter seg lettere og bedre til sin adoptiv mor. Mors røst utgjør den nødvendige og sterke basis som tillater lytteprosessens utvikling gjennom forskjellige stadier frem til utvikling av språk.
Hele prosessen er ikke noe annet enn et forsøk på å gjenopprette de forskjellige stadier i menneskets utvikling gjennom en symbolsk opplevelse; en slags omprogrammering.
Bruken av mors røst er kun et terapeutisk redskap for å skape eller gjenskape båndet mellom mor og barn, som eventuelt ikke ble fullstendig utviklet. Hundrevis av studier viser at båndet mellom mor og barn er fundamentalt for barnets utvikling og selvtillit, herpå bygger også barnets ønske om å kommunisere med omverden. Ved å benytte mors røst forsøker en å innstille barnet på å gjenoppta kontakten og lytte til sine første omsorgspersoner og til sine omgivelser. Denne psykologiske tilnærmingen må gå hånd i hånd med bearbeiding av sanseapparatet. Med Tomatis metode kombineres begge deler, for å etablere et solid fundament for videre utvikling.
7.    Lytteprogrammet
Metoden innebærer at man ved hjelp av musikk fra tilknyttet cd-/kassettspillere som er spesialfiltrert og som signalbehandles i nå-tid (realtime) i vårt lydanlegg, trener opp hørselorganet og hjernen til mer korrekt å oppfatte, sortere og prioritere innkommende lydsignaler.
Senere i prosessen kan mikrofon bli tatt i bruk, i en aktiv fase. Dette for å påskynde eller understøtte utviklingen av egen stemmebruk for å trene de kontrollmekanismer som gjelder i dette nevrologiske kretsløpet.
For mer detaljert informasjon ta kontakt med oss for uforbindtlig samtale eller be om mer informasjon. Forøvrig velg ”TOMATIS trening” i vår meny.
8.    Det elektroniske øret
Det elektroniske øret, som er det vesentlige elementet i treningen består bl.a. av en forsterker med to lydkanaler (audio channels). Den ene av kanalene har som oppgave å forsterke de lave frekvenser blant innkommende signaler/musikk, samtidig som høye frekvenser blir redusert.
Denne lydbehandlingen simulerer tilstanden benevnt «passiv høring». Når musikken når et visst volum, aktiveres en annen «gate» som omdirigerer lyden til den andre lydkanalen. Denne lydkanalen har en motsatt funksjon eller oppgave i det den forsterker de høye frekvenser, samtidig som den undertrykker de lave frekvenser. Denne lydbehandlingen simulerer tilstanden «aktiv lytting».
Resultatet av denne hurtige skiftning (alternering) eller «flip-flop» av musikk fra en kanal til den andre oppleves av tilhører som en pulsering. Denne pulseringen trener og styrker det auditive system, en slags «øregymnastikk» som forsterker den stimulerende effekt musikk har.
Det elektroniske øret er også utstyrt med en variabel forsinkelsesmekanisme på utgående lydsignal (til høretelefoner), som gjør det mulig for terapeuten å forbedre lytterens egen lydbehandling.
Ved hjelp av en spesiell balansefunksjon (sound attenuator), er det mulig å redusere intensiteten av musikken som sendes til begge ørene, uavhengig av hverandre. Denne funksjonen hjelper til å etablere eller styrke auditiv lateralitet; fortrinnsvis høyre øre dominans.

Dette er kort fortalt hvordan lyttingen blir trenet

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